Health Problem Descriiption & Surveillance
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Part II: Health Problem Descriiption & Surveillance
6. Give a problem statement which should include the elements of descriiptive analysis: what, who, where, when; and a PICO question for this addressed problem
7. Describe the epidemiology of the problem: using applicable epidemiologic surveillance measures or statistics, i.e., trends, rates, frequency, risk, mortality, morbidity, prevalence, incidence, proportionate mortality, case fatality global burden, etc. Include how surveillance is done. This shows the scope of the problem.
a. Include as much detail of the following types of surveillance as you can possibly identify:
i. Describe any facility-based surveillance that is currently used. If none is found, discuss the feasibility of facility based efforts that would be appropriate for health care facilities (e.g., clinic, hospital)
ii. Describe any community-based surveillance that is currently being used. If none is found, discuss the feasibility of a community based system. What surveillance activities would be appropriate for communities in your country? How would surveillance activities be carried out and by who?
iii. Describe any national or international surveillance that is currently being used (think CDC in our country or found in other countries via WHO).
8. Describe the natural history of the health problem: historical evolution and progression of the problem (disease/issue). Describe the etiology of the problem: outbreak detection; risk factors or causative agents (analytic epidemiology: how and why). Depending on identified topic, this may lend you to look at health risks and outcomes due to the risks.
Please keep this section brief—this does not have to be detailed pathophysiology, just the general course of disease/problem. If it is a chronic disease or other health-related event, define precursors and consequences. If it is an infectious disease, the following stages may be included:
a. Susceptibility (think transmissibility, herd immunity, immunocompromised, etc.)
b. Pre-symptomatic disease (dormant? Incubation period? etc.)
c. Clinical disease (signs & symptoms)
d. Recovery, disability, or death, etc.
e. Describe any cultural practices (if any) that exacerbate the situation, such as lifestyle changes, or customs, or those that are used to remedy the problem.
9. Portray an epidemiological triangle conveying an accurate understanding of host, agent and environment. You may include a causative wheel/web of causation or can be creative with triangle to incorporate causative factors if other than an infectious disease.